I thought it might be nice to sit down and re-watch my DVD of Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan today. As I’ve written before, it is a really great movie. The script by Nicholas Meyer, Harve Bennett and Jack B. Sowards has so many fascinating aspects to it. And then it occurred to me that it had been literally years since I’d actually viewed “Space Seed,” the Star Trek episode written by Gene L. Coon & Carey Wilber to which The Wrath of Khan is a sequel. I did a Google search, and found that you can view it for free online at Hulu. Yeah, okay, you have to sit though several commercials, but it’s still better than watching a grainy bootlegged version.
Viewing “Space Seed” and Star Trek II back-to-back, I realized what an amazingly fascinating character Khan Noonien Singh was. Obviously a major aspect of this is that the part of Khan was portrayed by the amazing Ricardo Montalban, who turns in a forceful, charismatic performance. But I think that aspects of Khan’s character also speak to a quality present in society, the notion of the appeal of the so-called “benevolent dictator.”
The idea of one unifying individual bringing order to a state or nation, or perhaps even the entire world, is certainly not a new one. In certain respects, it is understandable. The alternative, democracy, is an extremely flawed, messy process. Dozens upon dozens of dissenting voices have to be heard and appeased, compromises need to be achieved that often end up pleasing no one, politicians who are supposed to be the representatives of the people are swayed or outright bought by private interests, and the entire day-to-day functioning of government can be ground to a halt by a small group of elected officials who are unwilling to participate in the process. One needs only look at the current deplorable state of affairs here in the United States to see this taking place.
But, really, just how much better is the alternative? Lord Acton stated that “Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Or, as Spock (Leonard Nimoy) observes in “Space Seed,” when commenting on the genetically engineered supermen who once nearly seized control of Earth:
“Superior ability breeds superior ambition.”
The crew of the Enterprise, having discovered the cryogenically frozen Khan and his band of followers in outer space, is of two minds about the man. While Kirk (William Shatner) dislikes what Khan represents, at the same time, looking at the historical record, the Captain of the Enterprise sees that, in contrast to many of his contemporaries, Khan’s dominion over a major portion of the globe was relatively benign & peaceful. Indeed, over dinner with the ship’s crew, Khan passionately argues that the Earth made a terrible mistake in driving him into exile. He states that his rule was not tyrannical, but “an attempt to unite humanity.” He goes on to forcefully declare…
“We offered the world order!”
Khan is certainly an extremely charismatic individual with a magnetic personality. However, the man’s true side begins to come out in his interactions with Lieutenant Marla McGivers (Madlyn Rhue). The Enterprise’s historian is immediately attracted to Khan and what he represents. In an early establishing shot, we see McGivers’ quarters are decorated with paintings & sculptures of men of power such as Alexander the Great, Napoleon, and Richard the Lionheart. She possesses a much romanticized view of these individuals, who she considers superior to the males of her time. And Khan immediately seizes on to that.
In his actions, Khan shows some of the signs of being a sociopath. He is driven by ego, by the belief in his superiority over others. He values other people primarily for what they can give him. He knows how to talk a good game. And he is superb at reading other people. Khan immediately identifies that McGivers has this idealized view of individuals such as himself, and that she is attracted to him, both on a physical level and because of what he represents. No doubt he also notes that she has a rather submissive side to her personality. He takes advantage of all this, forcefully seducing her, and then ordering her to assist him in taking over the Enterprise. When McGivers is at first unwilling to do so, Khan then appears to dismiss her, denying her the attention & affection she craves. It is definitely an extremely unhealthy and twisted relationship built on abuse.
Once Khan and his followers, with McGivers’ aid, take over the Enterprise, his charming, civilized veneer continues to slip. Khan realizes that Kirk and his crew are not going to easily capitulate. He threatens Kirk with an extremely slow, painful death by suffocation, and promises to repeat this to the rest of the bridge crew, one by one. However, if any of them swear to serve him, he will spare their lives. In this way, at least in his mind, he appears benevolent. As Khan no doubt sees it, he is basically saying “Look, I can be reasonable and merciful. Just do what I tell you to do and I promise no harm will come to you.” Of course, the crew refuse Khan’s offer, and remain loyal to Kirk. This just serves to further enrage Khan. The more his enemies resist him, the more violent he becomes. It is this that shocks McGivers into betraying Khan. Witnessing first-hand the cold, hard reality of the types of men she had admired, she is repulsed, and she rescues Kirk, who organizes his crew to take back the ship.
However, Khan’s ego will not allow him to give up. He attempts to blow up the Enterprise, wanting to take down everyone with him. Kirk of course manages to thwart this. Later, with the super-humans in custody, Kirk offers Khan and his followers the choice of settling on the untamed planet Ceti Alpha V instead of imprisonment by Starfleet. He also gives McGivers the opportunity to join Khan rather than face court martial. She agrees, and Khan declares…
“I will take her. And I’ve gotten something else I wanted: a world to win, an empire to build.”
There is Khan’s ego once more at work. He forgives McGivers for her betrayal. And he twists things around so that he can rationalize that despite being defeated he has achieved what he wanted in the first place.
Unfortunately, as we find out fifteen years later in Star Trek II, things turn out really badly for Khan and his people on Ceti Alpha V. Six months after settling there, the neighboring planet in the system exploded. Ceti Alpha V’s orbit shifted, turning it into an inhospitable desert, and for the next decade and a half Khan and his followers barely clung to existence.
When the Reliant arrives at Ceti Alpha V, mistaking it for the exploded planet, Khan instantly recognizes its First Officer, Pavel Chekov, formerly of the Enterprise (Yes, I know, Walter Koenig didn’t join the cast of Star Trek until the second season, and so wasn’t in “Space Seed.” Koenig likes to joke that his character was serving on a different part of the Enterprise at that time, and that Chekov accidentally kept Khan waiting an uncomfortably long time to use the bathroom, hence the animosity.) Here again Khan’s ego immediately comes into play. Instead of recognizing an opportunity for rescue, he becomes full of resentment. Looking around at the sorry state he is now in, Khan declares “On Earth, two hundred years ago, I was a prince, with power over millions.” He is disgusted at the notion that in the intervening years Kirk has been promoted to Admiral, no doubt seeing it as a further insult that his rival has had a successful career while Khan was off rotting in exile. In fact, Khan places the blame for his circumstances squarely on Kirk for never returning to check up on him (which, admittedly, is a fair enough criticism). Now Khan sees the opportunity for revenge. He takes control of the Reliant and sets out to kill his hated foe.
It’s interesting that Khan refers to the death of his “beloved wife,” undoubtedly a reference to Marla McGivers. I really do wonder if Khan loved her. It seems somewhat difficult to believe so, based on their relationship in “Space Seed,” where he was manipulating her. Maybe he genuinely did. Then again, perhaps Khan merely convinced himself that he loved her, because it fulfilled his self-image as a good man. Whatever the case, I think that when the opportunity arose to attack Kirk, he uses McGivers’ death as one more self-justification in pursuing his vendetta.
In watching Star Trek II, you do realize that Khan has ample opportunities to take a different course of action. Instead, he is absolutely hell-bent on gaining revenge. Even Khan’s utterly loyal right-hand man Joachim (Judson Scott) attempts on more than one occasion to argue that they have their freedom and a spaceship, they can go anywhere in the universe, lead their own destiny once again. But Khan’s monumental pride simply will not allow it. He will not let go of the idea of avenging himself on Kirk.
After the Enterprise barely survives an encounter with the Khan-controlled Reliant, Kirk bitterly notes..
“He wants to kill me for passing sentence on him fifteen years ago. And he doesn’t care who stands between him and his vengeance.”
It eventually transpires that this even includes Khan’s own devoted followers. He is more concerned with revenge than he is for their welfare.
It’s interesting to note that early in the film we see a copy of Herman Melville’s Moby Dick on Khan’s bookshelf. No doubt he has had ample time to familiarize himself with the novel during his long exile. Yet Khan ends up playing the role of Captain Ahab, the monomaniacal captain who leads himself and his entire crew to their deaths in his pursuit of the white whale. Khan himself obviously recognizes the parallels between himself and Ahab, but he simply does not care. As he activates the stolen Genesis Device in an attempt to destroy the Enterprise along with his own ship, he even quotes the novel:
“From hell’s heart I stab at thee. For hate’s sake I spit my last breath at thee.”
I had never noticed it before, but Khan actually bears some interesting similarities to the comic book character Doctor Doom, who was created by Stan Lee & Jack Kirby in the pages of Fantastic Four. Like Khan, Victor Von Doom is often described as a “benevolent dictator.” He is the absolute monarch of the country of Latveria. In certain respects, Doom has transformed his homeland into a paradise. There is no crime or poverty in Latveria; of course, neither is there any free will. Some might argue that the loss of civil liberties is a small price to pay. The problem is that this seeming golden age is dependant solely upon the whims of Doctor Doom. Like Khan, he is a creature of immense ego, convinced of his innate superiority. He claims to love the people of Latveria, and by granting them peace & prosperity it allows him to demonstrate to himself and everyone else that he is right, that he knows what is best for the world.
However, just like Khan, when things don’t go exactly according to plan, off come the kid gloves, and suddenly Doom is an extremely dangerous, petty, vengeful individual. Certainly his decades-long vendetta against Reed Richards for what is, in truth, a mistake Doom made due to his own arrogance, proves that. In Doom’s mind, he cannot be wrong; it must be somebody else’s fault. And he’s pursued his quest for vengeance against Richards, his desire to show everyone that he is the smarter, better man, with a fanatical single-mindedness.
As for the people of Latveria, as much as Doom claims to adore and cherish them, the second they become a liability, the second they stand in his way or cease to be of use to him as a propaganda symbol or a method of stroking his ego, he will casually cast them aside or destroy them. In the end, Doom comes first, and everything else is secondary.
And that is why, as alluring as the concept of the “benevolent dictator” appears, it is really a terrible idea. Yes, in the short term a supposedly well-intentioned absolute ruler may be able to create order & stability. But it is the type of progress that cannot last in the long run, and which is ever subject to the frailties of the all too human egos of those in control.