Back Issue #68, the most recent edition of the excellent magazine edited by Michael Eury and published by TwoMorrows, took an in-depth look at the history of the Legion of Super-Heroes in the 1970s and 80s, topped with vintage 1973 art by the late, great Dave Cockrum. I really enjoyed it, and was inspired to write about how I myself became a fan of these champions of justice from a thousand years in the future. In comparison to some readers who have been fans of the Legion for many decades, I’m a relative newcomer. And it was a rather long, convoluted road that led me to becoming a devotee.
When I first began reading comic books in the 1980s, I was almost exclusively into Marvel. I’d pick up an issue published by DC here or there but, really, Marvel was my thing. Then, in 1989, the Tim Burton Batman movie came out and, with the massive accompanying hype, I began picking up a few of the actual comics. I enjoyed those Batman stories, and quickly moved on to the Superman books, buying the then-current issues by such talents as Dan Jurgens and Jerry Ordway, as well as catching up on the recent John Byrne stories via back issues. Those, in turn, led me to several other DC books including Legion of Super-Heroes.
Let me be honest: 1990 was probably not an ideal time for a virtual newcomer to the DCU to pick up the Legion cold. The title was still experiencing the aftershocks of Crisis of Infinite Earths (you can see my blog post “Should Superman Kill?” for a rundown on the entire Pocket Universe retcon of Superboy and the Legion’s history). In addition, a new Legion ongoing had recently started. Helmed by Tom & Mary Bierbaum, Keith Giffen and Al Gordon, this book had leaped forward half a decade into the future from the end of the previous volume. During that gap the Legion had disbanded & scattered across the galaxy, the United Planets had been plunged into a massive economic depression, and EarthGov had been covertly taken over by the alien Dominators. So even though I did rather enjoy the handful of Legion issues that I picked up around that time, I had a lot of difficulty figuring out who was who and what was what.
As I would find out years later, it also did not help that there were behind-the-scenes creative conflicts, with the editors of Superman laying down edicts that Superboy could not be referred to any longer, and neither could Supergirl, and a bunch of other stuff. Editors Mark Waid & Michael Eury (yep, him again), Giffen, Gordon and the Bierbaums did their best to come up with ways to work around all this, such as substituting Mon-El for Superboy and creating the character of Laurel Gand to take Supergirl’s place in the Legion’s history (for a detailed rundown on all of this, check out the excellent article “Too Much Time On My Hands: The History of the Time Trapper” by Jim Ford in Back Issue #68).
One source of information that assisted me immensely was the latest edition of Who’s Who in the DC Universe which was edited by a certain Mr. Eury. There were a large number of entries for Legion characters in that 16 issue incarnation of Who’s Who, and it really helped me figure out up from down.
Anyway, all the various tortured retcons eventually caused the entire Legion history to be totally rebooted from scratch. And then several years later it got rebooted again. None of this did anything to motivate me to follow the series regularly.
So what finally did make me a fan of Legion of Super-Heroes? It was two gentlemen by the names of Dave Cockrum and Jack Kirby.
Dave Cockrum is nowadays best known for co-creating the “All-New All-Different X-Men” with Len Wein in 1975, and then going on to pencil two runs on the series, paired with writer Chris Claremont. Back in the 1990s, Dave and his wife Paty lived in upstate New York, and so I often would see them at local conventions & store signings. I became a huge fan of Cockrum’s work and, in the process, I learned that right before he came over to Marvel to revamp X-Men, he had had a short but extremely influential stint on Superboy, a title which in the early 1970s was the home of the Legion as a back-up feature.
In 2000, DC published Legion of Super-Heroes Archives Volume 10, which reprinted the majority of Cockrum’s work on the series. I picked it up, and I instantly fell in love. It was immediately apparent that Cockrum had really played a crucial role in reviving the Legion. If you look at the first few stories in that Archives volume, the ones written by E. Nelson Bridwell & Cary Bates and drawn by George Tuska, they’re decent and entertaining, but nothing especially memorable.
Then Cockrum comes along, paired with Bates, and over the next few stories you can see a real shift. Cockrum started to draw the Legion members as slightly older, so that they were in their late teens, and he designed new uniforms for them, ones that were more fashionable & risqué. You could almost say he sexed up the Legion, although by today’s standards what he did is quite mild & innocent. (My favorite was Cockrum’s costume design for Phantom Girl, and I’m happy I had the opportunity to get a nice sketch of Tinya by him.) Cockrum revamped the technology, the look of the future, drawing a lot of inspiration from Star Trek. Cockrum’s art also contained this energy and dynamic quality. He really knew how to tell a compelling story, to draw exciting layouts and detailed sequences featuring multiple characters.
Cockrum may have got me to pick up that hardcover collection, but it was Bates’ writing that really hooked me. He did an amazing job scripting the numerous members of the Legion, making them seem like real people who were teammates and friends and occasionally romantic partners. I really got invested in this group of super-powered pals.
Cockrum’s stay wasn’t very long, lasting from 1972 to 1974, but by the time he left, the team had taken over the covers of Superboy, and the book was unofficially titled “Superboy starring the Legion of Super-Heroes.” Cockrum’s replacement was newcomer Mike Grell. I enjoyed Volume 10 of the Archives so much, I picked up the next one, which has the beginning of Grell’s run, paired with both Bates and Jim Shooter on writing duties. Obviously Grell has grown by immense leaps & bounds since the mid-1970s, but even back then you could see a great deal of talent & potential in his wonderful Legion art.
I also mentioned Jack Kirby. As far as I know, the King of Comics never drew the Legion. However, one of his most significant creations would play a major role in the annals of the team’s lore, courtesy of Paul Levitz & Keith Giffen.
“The Great Darkness Saga” originally ran in Legion of Super-Heroes #290-294, published in 1982. A mysterious, shadowy “Master” and his “Servants” are ravaging the United Planets, stealing various objects & sources of mystical power, in the process even taking down longtime Legion foes Mordru and the Time Trapper. After four issues in which the Legion has been beaten back by these mysterious beings, the identity of the “Master” is finally revealed: Darkseid, lord of Apokolips. Using the immense magical energies he has stolen, Darkseid teleports the planet Daxam to a yellow star and seizes mental control of its now-superhuman occupants, giving him an army of a billion beings with the strength & abilities of Superman. What follows is a titanic battle across the whole of the galaxy, as the Legion calls in practically every single one of their reserve members & allies to try and halt Darkseid & his enslaved pawns.
Darkseid’s identity was well-hidden back when “The Great Darkness Saga” was first published. In hindsight, you can see that Levitz & Giffen sprinkled in several clues for those who were really paying attention. Of course nowadays Darkseid’s role is very well known. So, as a huge fan of Kirby’s New Gods, I was absolutely interested in reading this now-classic story in which Darkseid was the villain. “The Great Darkness Saga” was definitely an epic adventure. At the same time, Levitz invested his script with a number of personal, quiet moments and pieces of characterization. Once again, I really got interested in these people, in finding out more about them.
“The Great Darkness Saga” had not one, but two, epilogues, which appeared in Legion Annual #3 (1984) and Annual #2 (1986)… the series restarted with a new #1 in-between these two, which explains that odd numbering! Having failed in his quest for universal domination, Darkseid sought to achieve a more personal, hurtful victory. And what he did was genuinely horrifying. But more on that (hopefully) in a future installment!
In any case, between the work of Cockrum, Grell & Bates in the 1970s and “The Great Darkness Saga” by Levitz & Giffen in the early 1980s, I really became interested in Legion. I picked up several of the previous Archive editions, which contained the work of Edmond Hamilton, John Forte, Curt Swan, and a very young Jim Shooter. I also searched out many of the Legion issues that Levitz wrote in the 1980s working with artists Steve Lightle and Greg LaRocque. It was all really good stuff. And when the pre-Crisis continuity of the Legion was more or less restored several years back, I picked up the new stories by Levitz and Geoff Johns. But, again, I’ll talk about that another time.
Silver Age artist Nick Cardy, who recently passed away, had a brief connection to the Legion. In addition to his runs illustrating Aquaman, Bat Lash, and Teen Titans, Cardy created stunning, dramatic covers for numerous DC titles throughout the 1960s and 70s, including Superboy. This meant that once the Legion took over as the regular cover feature in 1973, Cardy had the opportunity to draw the heroes of the 30th Century. And he did so beautifully, composing a number of striking images for the title, until Grell took over the cover chores two years later. Probably my favorite Legion cover by Cardy is Superboy #203. He does a superb job, depicting the menacing Validus looming over the unsuspecting Legionnaires.
Within that comic, behind Cardy’s fantastic cover, was “Massacre by Remote Control.” This featured the tragic death of Invisible Kid, who sacrificed himself to save his teammates from the near-mindless monstrosity Validus. It’s a very moving, emotional story by Bates & Grell.
And that, in turn, goes back to why I’ve come to be such a fan of the Legion. Writers such as Bates and Shooter and Levitz really had the ability to get readers to care for the characters in the series. Over the decades, those characters have grown and developed, been in and out of relationships, seen great triumphs and terrible failures. And sometimes, sadly, members of the Legion would fall in battle, such as what happened to Invisible Kid, or when Shooter & Swan showed us Ferro Lad bravely giving his life to stop the apocalyptic menace of the Sun-Eater. When incidents like this happened, it really did affect the reader. It’s no wonder that the Legion has such an amazingly dedicated fanbase.